Media convergence

4. Candidates Case Study: TV debate of Kennedy and Nixon

Presidential election of America has a close relation with media convergence. The typical case of early media convergence is the television debate between Kennedy and Nixon, and Kennedy with the help of television debate to win more people’s support. In 1960, television as a newly emerged media added into presidential election. After that debate, TV together with radio and newspaper were used in political propaganda.

图片 1

Kennedy Nixon debate (Google, 2016)

That year presidential campaign joined the TV debate based on traditional media. On the television screen, Kennedy looked like energetic, friendly and courteous, and in the word of CBS pre-president Frank Stanton (2000)” Nixon looked like death”, and he kept wiping when he spoke, so he looked haggard.

图片 2

Kennedy Nixon debate (Google, 2016)

The ostensible difference leads the television viewers support Kennedy while radio viewers supported Nixon. The main reason is that the image of television could affect overall evaluation (Druckman, 2003). Television enhances the integrity of overall evaluation of candidates, and people saw the image of Kennedy was more integrity than radio. Enhance, TV added into presidential elections, and it played an importance role with other kinds of media.

This is a video link of Kennedy and Nixon TV debate: (YouTube, 2016).


Druckman, J. N. (2003). The Power of Television Images: The First Kennedy‐Nixon Debate Revisited. Journal of Politics, 65(2), 559-571.

Google, (2016). Kennedy Nixon debate. [image] Available at: [Accessed 5 Mar. 2016].

Stanton, Frank. (2000). “The First Debate over Presidential Debates”. Newsweek, 25 september, 7.

Schudson, M. (1995). The Power of News. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

YouTube, (2016). kennedy and Nixon TV debate. [image] Available at: [Accessed 5 Mar. 2016].


Posted by: Ruochen Zhang

Student ID: 25708404


3.How media convergence can affect the American Presidential Election

As we discussed above, media convergence affects the media productions, distributions and receptions. American Presidential Election can be view as a typical example of how media convergence affects news transmission.

Generally speaking, these specific media convergence strategies of the American Presidential Election are mainly embodied in three aspects. First is different media platforms coming together to build unifying transmission channels to promote the news distribution (Jenkins, 2004); Meikle & Young, 2011). Campaign news and reports wide spread through the integration of various media forms. Second is the combination between campaign news and new media. As the emergence of networked social media platforms, an increasing number of candidates and media platforms seize the opportunity to cooperate with new media to contact with audiences and citizens (Meikle & Young, 2011). These cross-platform cooperations also changed the role of the audience. Thirdly, candidates grasp new opportunities to connect with citizens actively such as online interaction, television networks, offline services and other digital services (Meikle & Young, 2011).

In the next sections, we will specifically to see how media convergence influence the American Presidential Election from candidates’ propaganda behaviors, media agencies’ reported methods as well as citizens’ reactions these three aspects.


Jenkins, H. (2004). The cultural logic of media convergence. International journal of cultural studies, 7(1), 33-43.

Meikle, G., & Young, S. (2011). Media convergence: Networked digital media in everyday life. Palgrave Macmillan.Posted

Posted by :  JUN  ZHANG

Student ID:  27945804



2. What is media convergence

Media convergence, an ongoing media phenomenon, has been a continuous development and on-going discussion. On the one hand, some researchers consider media convergence to be different media technological remediation or join together to produce a ramification (Pool, 1983; Nicholas, 1988; Bolter & Grusin, 1999). For example, Pool, the first person to draw attention to media convergence pointed out that convergence blurs the lines between media platforms. One the other hand, others argue media convergence is more about content aggregation and a shift in communication through the integration of different media platforms (Jenson, 2010; Jenkins, 2006). Jenkins (2006) emphasizes that media content and audience have profoundly changed as the cooperation and collaboration of different media industries and technologies changed.

Drawing on the discussion above, we conclude that media convergence is a comprehensive media phenomenon as it includes the integration of technologies, cooperation of industries, development of marketing, changes of media forms, and shifts of relationships between audiences and medias (Silverstone, 1995; Grant & Wilkinson, 2009; Meikle & Young, 2011). More importantly, media convergence plays an extraordinary role in media production, distribution and interaction under the contemporary media environment. In this project, we will analyze how media convergence effect “American Presidential Election”.


Bolter, J., D. &Grusin, R. (1999). Remediation: Understanding New Media, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Grant, A. & Wilkinson, J. (2009). Understanding media convergence. New York: Oxford University Press.

Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York.

Jenson, (2010). Media convergence. London: Routledge.

Meikle, G., & Young, S. (2011). Media convergence: Networked digital media in everyday life. Palgrave Macmillan.

Negroponte, N. (1995). Being digital, London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Pool, Ithiel de Sola (1983). Technologies of Freedom, Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Silverstone, R. (1995). Convergence Is a Dangerous Word. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 1(11), 11-13.Posted

Posted by : JUN  ZHANG

Student ID:   27945804

1. Introduction

In recent years, with media digital technology development and progress, media convergence has become an inescapability phenomenon. “ Media convergence is already being implemented with varying degrees of enthusiasm and speed among the world’s media companies”( Huang, E., et al, 2006, P84). Because of the digital advance, media convergence effect transmission process more deeply, traditional media which include newspapers, radio, television and magazine has combine with some social media such as the Twitter, Facebook , YouTube and so on. These media interact with each other and make text, pictures, sound, video and other information are available through a unified coding technology into digital, and also prompted an information terminal that audiences would receive information from variety media .In this content, media convergence has attract more attention.

In addition, media convergence revolutionized the traditional way of reporting news and also improve the ability of disseminate information. American Presidential Election is the typical case in media convergence in recent years. From the television debate between Kennedy and Nixon(1960), then Obama won the succeed and attract more vote in Twitter and Facebook(2008), moreover, Hillary  Clinton update promotion articles on Feed and make people know more about her. These presidential candidates used media convergence more effective and attracted more voters’ support. Therefore, media convergence has changed the mode of transmission and effect American Presidential Election.

This article will use the media convergence as a theoretical  basis, and analyze typical presidents’ behavior on different media during Presidential Election, discuss how media convergence effect “American Presidential Election”.


Huang, E., Davison, K., Shreve, S., Davis, T., Bettendorf, E. and Nair, A. (2006). Facing the Challenges of Convergence: Media Professionals’ Concerns of Working Across Media Platforms. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 12(1), pp.83-98.Posted by:  Qi Zhang

Posted by:  Qi Zhang

Student ID: 28076826