4. Candidates Case Study: TV debate of Kennedy and Nixon

Presidential election of America has a close relation with media convergence. The typical case of early media convergence is the television debate between Kennedy and Nixon, and Kennedy with the help of television debate to win more people’s support. In 1960, television as a newly emerged media added into presidential election. After that debate, TV together with radio and newspaper were used in political propaganda.

图片 1

Kennedy Nixon debate (Google, 2016)

That year presidential campaign joined the TV debate based on traditional media. On the television screen, Kennedy looked like energetic, friendly and courteous, and in the word of CBS pre-president Frank Stanton (2000)” Nixon looked like death”, and he kept wiping when he spoke, so he looked haggard.

图片 2

Kennedy Nixon debate (Google, 2016)

The ostensible difference leads the television viewers support Kennedy while radio viewers supported Nixon. The main reason is that the image of television could affect overall evaluation (Druckman, 2003). Television enhances the integrity of overall evaluation of candidates, and people saw the image of Kennedy was more integrity than radio. Enhance, TV added into presidential elections, and it played an importance role with other kinds of media.

This is a video link of Kennedy and Nixon TV debate: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QazmVHAO0os (YouTube, 2016).


Druckman, J. N. (2003). The Power of Television Images: The First Kennedy‐Nixon Debate Revisited. Journal of Politics, 65(2), 559-571.

Google, (2016). Kennedy Nixon debate. [image] Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=Kennedy+nixon&espv=2&biw=1366&bih=623&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjfz_XO967LAhXGShQKHYMDBYQQsAQILw#imgrc=OO2QkTTghDQZqM%3A [Accessed 5 Mar. 2016].

Stanton, Frank. (2000). “The First Debate over Presidential Debates”. Newsweek, 25 september, 7.

Schudson, M. (1995). The Power of News. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

YouTube, (2016). kennedy and Nixon TV debate. [image] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QazmVHAO0os [Accessed 5 Mar. 2016].


Posted by: Ruochen Zhang

Student ID: 25708404


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s