10. Conclusion

In conclusion, with the increasingly fierce market competition, traditional media and new media has increasingly close cooperation, media convergence developed more and more fast, and it also play an important role in political events .Especially in American Presidential Election, on the one hand, candidates not only relay on tradition media, but also use some social media(Twitter ,Facebook, You Tube and so on )to promote their political ideas and make audiences support their propositions. Such as Obama, he and his team could post images ,videos on Twitter and Facebook to citizens. On the other hand, citizens could also know more information about candidates, because media convergence make audience gain news more easily, they could ask questions and make comments online if they really interest in one of the candidates, and citizens’ support will affect the result of Presidential Election. In addition, the integration of news content at the same time changed the production process , it also revolutionized the traditional way of reporting the news, CNN cooperate with Facebook  is a typical case in political events. In this case, media convergence deduces a variety of propagation effects and improves the ability to disseminate of information.

Posted by:  Qi Zhang

Student ID: 28076826



9. Audience Participation

In the past two U.S. presidential elections, Facebook, Twitter and other social networks have played a very important role. Formerly, social networks have been used by anti-government figures to express different political views. But now more and more ruling parties have begun to use social networks to interact with the public. This interaction can also play a win-win effect. The dignitaries’ befriending behavior can get more public supports, meanwhile, social networks with the help of political activities expanded their influences.

IMAGE 1: The netizen expressed their attitudes about Obama elected President in 2012 on Facebook.(http://www.adweek.com/socialtimes/obama-acceptance-speech/402316) [Accessed 05 March 2016]

Tumasjan et al. (2010) have found Obama attaches great importance to the network that he is benefit from social media and network in the general election. Obama’s twitter has someone to maintain, and once netizen added Obama’s followers, maintainers will put his followers as a friend. When these friends make some remarks about Obama that Obama’s twitter could reply initiatively, which narrowed the distance between him and ordinary voters. In fact, Obama’s rival Hillary Clinton also established a profile on twitter, but Clinton only treated twitter as an information dissemination platform, rather than a communication tool.

图片 13

IMAGE 2: The Twitter of Obama (http://www.idigitaltimes.com/obama-has-fake-twitter-followers-too-does-it-matter-337313) [Accessed on 5th March 2016]


Tumasjan, A., Sprenger, T. O., Sandner, P. G., and Welpe, I. M. (2010) Predicting elections with twitter: What 140 characters reveal about political sentiment. 10: 178-185.

Posted by:  Jie Yu

Student ID: 28113934

Posted by: Yan Zhang

Student ID: 27873595


8. Reporting: The Cooperation of CNN and Facebook

CNN has actively carried out the exploration of media convergence. With the emergence of Youtube, Facebook, Twitter and other forms of new media, CNN seized the opportunity to cooperate with them in the important events. In the ‘News Battle’ of the 2008 U.S. presidential election, CNN boldly attempted the touch screen technology which was called‘MagicWall’ that applied the interface based screen design, multi-windows dialogue, virtual reality and other high-tech means. The full use of the media convergence of Internet and mobile phone madethe audience rating of CNNreach the highest in the U.S. election.

In the convergence of many new media, the cooperation of CNN and Facebook was typical. In 2009, CNN and Facebook in common reported the inauguration of Obamain the web page. The ‘Facebook Connect’from the upper left side of the web pageembedded CNN live video screen. On the right side is the Facebook users’ personal status information. The users would be able to comment immediately at the live time. In the bottom of the web page is the information about other friends and the inauguration.As a result, CNN gained a complete victory in Obama’s inaugural report.

图片 9(https://www.jeffreydonenfeld.com/blog/2009/01/cnn-making-facebook-status-the-next-twitter/) [Accessed 05 March 2016]


Posted by:  Jie Yu

Student ID: 28113934

7.Reporting: Washington Post made an influence on American presidential election

It is generally believed that media report is a multiaspect method to spread information nowadays. It is understood that in American presidential election coverage that the Washington Post is play a important role to transmit media information in this event (Adamic and Glance, 2005). The Washington Post not only dispatch text editors and photographers to scene but also with multiple types reporters. The website posted writing and linked related video, newspaper and new media could get integration (Zavoina and Reichert, 2000).

On the other hand, the Washington Post developed a attractive way to enhance the voter turnout of people that they made a mobile game: Floppy Candidate. This 8-bit game only took Washington Post’s digital product team a few weeks. This game is same to Flappy Bird exactly, only in the game, the original birds have been replaced by a variety of candidates’ heads, such as Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. Those waterpipes would change into the walls of the White House and when you select different candidate could show different characteristics. So Washington Post is trying to use games to arouse citizens’ interest in this topic. At the same time, using simple and understandable games can make people avoid those obscure political terms that can give people a better understanding of the candidates’ personal characteristics.

IMAGE1&2: The Floppy Candidate (https://www.washingtonpost.com/pr/wp/2015/12/14/play-your-way-through-2016-with-floppy-candidate-from-the-washington-post/) [Accessed on 5thMarch 2016]


Adamic, L. A. and Glance, N. (2005) The political blogosphere and the 2004 US election: divided they blog. In Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop on Link discovery: 36-43

Zavoina, S. and Reichert, T. (2000) Media convergence/management change: The evolving workflow for visual journalists. The Journal of Media Economics 13(2): 143-151.

Posted by: Yan Zhang

Student ID:27873595

6.Candidates Case Study: Media campaign strategies of Hillary Clinton

American presidential election is fast looming, and Hillary has do a lot of preparation for presidential election, such as mainstream media, official website, Facebook page, YouTube. We wonder the creative activities of her election campaign.

图片 4

Feed (Feed, 2016)

Ruochen:I saw some articles about Hillary on the Feed. Have you seen that?

Ying: Not yet. So what is the feed?

Ruochen:Feed is a part of Hillary official website, and it is designed similar with Buzzfeed. There has five professional writer and they provide promotion articles, interactive games about Hillary on the blog. It is an interesting way to engage young people.

图片 5

Feed (Feed, 2016)

Ying: This makes me recognize the Obama campaign and I heard of Hillary has employed his excellent campaign mastermind, Teddy Goff. I think it is important to shorten the distance with voters in a media-convergence age.

图片 6

Hillary Quick Question (Google, 2016)

Ruochen:Moreover, Hillary uses a short video which called Quick Question to show her personal life, and it makes her more friendly and warm. Compared with her competitor Trump who try to response lots of online users’ question by himself, Hillary don’t have direct connection with audience, but she provide funny gif pictures and short video to create her special female image.

Quick Question video link:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9YQx4u_zqlI&list=PLt9jO9QkAAoeIVwS6dekFT0Mm865hg-co&index=5 (YouTube, 2016)

Ying: Yes, it is a brilliant point. Now, to some extent, people have reduced the concern of openly current political affairs (Przybyla, 2016). Teddy Goff (2016) said, “They have a higher set of expectations for how they’re going to be served”.

Ying: Here is an interesting interview video about Hillary Clinton.

http://www.acfun.tv/v/ac2264301 (AcFun, 2016)


AcFun, (2016). Interview of Hillary. [image] Available at: http://www.acfun.tv/v/ac2264301 [Accessed 5 Mar. 2016].

Feed, (2016). Feed and Hillary. [image] Available at: http://www.hillaryclinton.com/feed [Accessed 5 Mar. 2016].

Goole, (2016). Hillary quick question. [image] Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/search?espv=2&biw=1366&bih=623&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Hillary+quick+question&oq=Hillary+quick+question&gs_l=img.3…704744.714662.0.715076.….0…1c.1.64.img..0.17.625.7ySORTxez3E#imgrc=jfmDDFYiaDsx7M%3A [Accessed 5 Mar. 2016].

Heidi M Przybyla (2016), Clinton media campaign follows BuzzFeed model. USA TODAY.

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/elections/2016/01/18/hillary-clinton-social-media-trump-twitter-facebook/78856358/ [Accessed 18 January 2016].

Rodriguez, G. (2016). Todo lo que necesitas saber sobre el caucus en Colorado.. [image] Available at: https://www.hillaryclinton.com/feed/todo-lo-que-necesitas-saber-sobre-el-caucus-en-colorado/ [Accessed 29 Feb. 2016].

YouTube, (2016). Hillary quick question. [image] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9YQx4u_zqlI&list=PLt9jO9QkAAoeIVwS6dekFT0Mm865hg-co&index=5 [Accessed 5 Mar. 2016].

Posted by: Ruochen Zhang

Student ID: 25708404

Posted  by: Ying Zhang

Student ID: 27945189

5. Candidate Case Study: How can social media help Obama’s Campaign

After that, Barack Obama and his team have successfully used Facebook, Twitter and other social medium, not restricted in the traditional media, to win the American electorate’s vote in 2008. Several experts said his victory is mainly ascribed to Obama’s online tactic (Jungherr, Jurgens and Schoen, 2011). The campaign team used new media to connect with the masses in order to create their own social networking platform. What’s more, they shared stories and interests with text or video that they could build voters’ acquaintance with Obama.

图片 3

(This is the homepage of Barack Obama on Facebook)

In addition, Manlow and Friedman (2009) pointed it appeared a blurring of roles in Obama campaign because of the social media. That is to say, some campaign staff who act as the ordinary voters, are making efforts to the process of Obama’s campaign through new media technologies. One of the main issues of this campaign is that ordinary voters aim at delivering the word and keep their voice efficiently received (Manlow and Friedman, 2009). To achieve this goal, a wide range of campaign workers tend to use new media to represent detailed content individually. This lead to the phenomenon that people holding the similar stance would have more motivation to establish communities for campaign activities (Manlow and Friedman, 2009).


Jungherr, A., Jurgens, P. and Schoen, H. 2011, Why the Pirate Party Won the German Election of 2009 or The Trouble With Predictions: A Response to Tumasjan, A., Sprenger, T. O., Sander, P. G., & Welpe, I. M. “Predicting Elections With Twitter: What 140 Characters Reveal About Political Sentiment”. Social Science Computer Review, 30(2), pp.229-234.

Manlow, V; Friedman, LW; & Friedman, H. 2009, “Barack Obama 2.0: The Power of New Media in Achieving and Sustaining Presidential Charisma,” John Ben Shepperd Journal of Practical Leadership, 4, Spring 2009, 77 -85.

Posted by: Ying Zhang

Student ID: 27945189

4. Candidates Case Study: TV debate of Kennedy and Nixon

Presidential election of America has a close relation with media convergence. The typical case of early media convergence is the television debate between Kennedy and Nixon, and Kennedy with the help of television debate to win more people’s support. In 1960, television as a newly emerged media added into presidential election. After that debate, TV together with radio and newspaper were used in political propaganda.

图片 1

Kennedy Nixon debate (Google, 2016)

That year presidential campaign joined the TV debate based on traditional media. On the television screen, Kennedy looked like energetic, friendly and courteous, and in the word of CBS pre-president Frank Stanton (2000)” Nixon looked like death”, and he kept wiping when he spoke, so he looked haggard.

图片 2

Kennedy Nixon debate (Google, 2016)

The ostensible difference leads the television viewers support Kennedy while radio viewers supported Nixon. The main reason is that the image of television could affect overall evaluation (Druckman, 2003). Television enhances the integrity of overall evaluation of candidates, and people saw the image of Kennedy was more integrity than radio. Enhance, TV added into presidential elections, and it played an importance role with other kinds of media.

This is a video link of Kennedy and Nixon TV debate: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QazmVHAO0os (YouTube, 2016).


Druckman, J. N. (2003). The Power of Television Images: The First Kennedy‐Nixon Debate Revisited. Journal of Politics, 65(2), 559-571.

Google, (2016). Kennedy Nixon debate. [image] Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=Kennedy+nixon&espv=2&biw=1366&bih=623&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjfz_XO967LAhXGShQKHYMDBYQQsAQILw#imgrc=OO2QkTTghDQZqM%3A [Accessed 5 Mar. 2016].

Stanton, Frank. (2000). “The First Debate over Presidential Debates”. Newsweek, 25 september, 7.

Schudson, M. (1995). The Power of News. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

YouTube, (2016). kennedy and Nixon TV debate. [image] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QazmVHAO0os [Accessed 5 Mar. 2016].


Posted by: Ruochen Zhang

Student ID: 25708404

3.How media convergence can affect the American Presidential Election

As we discussed above, media convergence affects the media productions, distributions and receptions. American Presidential Election can be view as a typical example of how media convergence affects news transmission.

Generally speaking, these specific media convergence strategies of the American Presidential Election are mainly embodied in three aspects. First is different media platforms coming together to build unifying transmission channels to promote the news distribution (Jenkins, 2004); Meikle & Young, 2011). Campaign news and reports wide spread through the integration of various media forms. Second is the combination between campaign news and new media. As the emergence of networked social media platforms, an increasing number of candidates and media platforms seize the opportunity to cooperate with new media to contact with audiences and citizens (Meikle & Young, 2011). These cross-platform cooperations also changed the role of the audience. Thirdly, candidates grasp new opportunities to connect with citizens actively such as online interaction, television networks, offline services and other digital services (Meikle & Young, 2011).

In the next sections, we will specifically to see how media convergence influence the American Presidential Election from candidates’ propaganda behaviors, media agencies’ reported methods as well as citizens’ reactions these three aspects.


Jenkins, H. (2004). The cultural logic of media convergence. International journal of cultural studies, 7(1), 33-43.

Meikle, G., & Young, S. (2011). Media convergence: Networked digital media in everyday life. Palgrave Macmillan.Posted

Posted by :  JUN  ZHANG

Student ID:  27945804



2. What is media convergence

Media convergence, an ongoing media phenomenon, has been a continuous development and on-going discussion. On the one hand, some researchers consider media convergence to be different media technological remediation or join together to produce a ramification (Pool, 1983; Nicholas, 1988; Bolter & Grusin, 1999). For example, Pool, the first person to draw attention to media convergence pointed out that convergence blurs the lines between media platforms. One the other hand, others argue media convergence is more about content aggregation and a shift in communication through the integration of different media platforms (Jenson, 2010; Jenkins, 2006). Jenkins (2006) emphasizes that media content and audience have profoundly changed as the cooperation and collaboration of different media industries and technologies changed.

Drawing on the discussion above, we conclude that media convergence is a comprehensive media phenomenon as it includes the integration of technologies, cooperation of industries, development of marketing, changes of media forms, and shifts of relationships between audiences and medias (Silverstone, 1995; Grant & Wilkinson, 2009; Meikle & Young, 2011). More importantly, media convergence plays an extraordinary role in media production, distribution and interaction under the contemporary media environment. In this project, we will analyze how media convergence effect “American Presidential Election”.


Bolter, J., D. &Grusin, R. (1999). Remediation: Understanding New Media, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Grant, A. & Wilkinson, J. (2009). Understanding media convergence. New York: Oxford University Press.

Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York.

Jenson, (2010). Media convergence. London: Routledge.

Meikle, G., & Young, S. (2011). Media convergence: Networked digital media in everyday life. Palgrave Macmillan.

Negroponte, N. (1995). Being digital, London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Pool, Ithiel de Sola (1983). Technologies of Freedom, Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Silverstone, R. (1995). Convergence Is a Dangerous Word. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 1(11), 11-13.Posted

Posted by : JUN  ZHANG

Student ID:   27945804

1. Introduction

In recent years, with media digital technology development and progress, media convergence has become an inescapability phenomenon. “ Media convergence is already being implemented with varying degrees of enthusiasm and speed among the world’s media companies”( Huang, E., et al, 2006, P84). Because of the digital advance, media convergence effect transmission process more deeply, traditional media which include newspapers, radio, television and magazine has combine with some social media such as the Twitter, Facebook , YouTube and so on. These media interact with each other and make text, pictures, sound, video and other information are available through a unified coding technology into digital, and also prompted an information terminal that audiences would receive information from variety media .In this content, media convergence has attract more attention.

In addition, media convergence revolutionized the traditional way of reporting news and also improve the ability of disseminate information. American Presidential Election is the typical case in media convergence in recent years. From the television debate between Kennedy and Nixon(1960), then Obama won the succeed and attract more vote in Twitter and Facebook(2008), moreover, Hillary  Clinton update promotion articles on Feed and make people know more about her. These presidential candidates used media convergence more effective and attracted more voters’ support. Therefore, media convergence has changed the mode of transmission and effect American Presidential Election.

This article will use the media convergence as a theoretical  basis, and analyze typical presidents’ behavior on different media during Presidential Election, discuss how media convergence effect “American Presidential Election”.


Huang, E., Davison, K., Shreve, S., Davis, T., Bettendorf, E. and Nair, A. (2006). Facing the Challenges of Convergence: Media Professionals’ Concerns of Working Across Media Platforms. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 12(1), pp.83-98.Posted by:  Qi Zhang

Posted by:  Qi Zhang

Student ID: 28076826